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A – Z Coaching and Mentoring – This week’s extract from Clare Smale’s book highlights various ‘Models’ used in the world of Coaching and Mentoring.

Don’t forget if you have a special request for a definition of a coaching term or principle, just let us know! Perfect for anyone studying for an ILM Coaching & Mentoring qualification, or as a refresher for experienced coaches.


Models are a framework for structuring an effective coaching conversation. They are usually shown as a linear framework. Experienced coaches will start anywhere within a model and navigate in and out of the different steps in the best order for the client. When learning to coach the models are often used much more rigidly. Here is a quick A-Z summary of some of the most common models (each model listed below has its own entry in the book for further detail):

  • ACT – awaken, connect, thrive
  • ACT – awareness, choice, trust
  • CLEAR – contracting, listening, exploring, actions, review
  • DICE – discover, enquire, challenge, empower
  • FACTS – feedback, accountability, courageous goals, tensions, systems thinking
  • FERAL – frame, explore, report, adjust, learn
  • FUEL – frame, understand, explore, lay out
  • GROW – goal, reality, options, way forward
  • OSKAR – outcome, scaling, know how, action, review
  • RESOLVE – resourceful state, establish rapport, specify the outcome, open up the client’s model of the world, leading, verify the change, ecological exit
  • SPECIFY – sensory specific, positive language, ecological, choice, initiated by self, first step, your resources
  • STRIDE – strengths, target, real situation, ideas, decision, evaluation


Taken from the A-Z Coaching Handbook by Clare Smale where you will find a comprehensive A-Z, plus a full list of references.

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